On the effectiveness of local binary patterns in face anti-spoofing
Spoofing attacks are one of the security traits that biometric recognition systems are proven to be vulnerable to. When spoofed, a biometric recognition system is bypassed by presenting a copy of the biometric evidence of a valid user. Among all biometric modalities, spoofing a face recognition system is particularly easy to perform: all that is needed is a simple photograph of the user. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting face spoofing attacks. In particular, we inspect the potential of texture features based on Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and their variations on three types of attacks: printed photographs, and photos and videos displayed on electronic screens of different sizes. For this purpose, we introduce REPLAY-ATTACK, a novel publicly available face spoofing database which contains all the mentioned types of attacks. We conclude that LBP, with $\sim 15$\% Half Total Error Rate, show moderate discriminability when confronted with a wide set of attack types.
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