License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2021.8
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143271
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Chan, T-H. Hubert ; Shi, Elaine ; Lin, Wei-Kai ; Nayak, Kartik

Perfectly Oblivious (Parallel) RAM Revisited, and Improved Constructions

LIPIcs-ITC-2021-8.pdf (0.8 MB)


Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a technique for compiling any RAM program to an oblivious counterpart, i.e., one whose access patterns do not leak information about the secret inputs. Similarly, Oblivious Parallel RAM (OPRAM) compiles a parallel RAM program to an oblivious counterpart. In this paper, we care about ORAM/OPRAM with perfect security, i.e., the access patterns must be identically distributed no matter what the program’s memory request sequence is. In the past, two types of perfect ORAMs/OPRAMs have been considered: constructions whose performance bounds hold in expectation (but may occasionally run more slowly); and constructions whose performance bounds hold deterministically (even though the algorithms themselves are randomized).
In this paper, we revisit the performance metrics for perfect ORAM/OPRAM, and show novel constructions that achieve asymptotical improvements for all performance metrics. Our first result is a new perfectly secure OPRAM scheme with O(log³ N/log log N) expected overhead. In comparison, prior literature has been stuck at O(log³ N) for more than a decade.
Next, we show how to construct a perfect ORAM with O(log³ N/log log N) deterministic simulation overhead. We further show how to make the scheme parallel, resulting in an perfect OPRAM with O(log⁴ N/log log N) deterministic simulation overhead. For perfect ORAMs/OPRAMs with deterministic performance bounds, our results achieve subexponential improvement over the state-of-the-art. Specifically, the best known prior scheme incurs more than √N deterministic simulation overhead (Raskin and Simkin, Asiacrypt'19); moreover, their scheme works only for the sequential setting and is not amenable to parallelization.
Finally, we additionally consider perfect ORAMs/OPRAMs whose performance bounds hold with high probability. For this new performance metric, we show new constructions whose simulation overhead is upper bounded by O(log³ /log log N) except with negligible in N probability, i.e., we prove high-probability performance bounds that match the expected bounds mentioned earlier.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Chan, T-H. Hubert and Shi, Elaine and Lin, Wei-Kai and Nayak, Kartik},
  title =	{{Perfectly Oblivious (Parallel) RAM Revisited, and Improved Constructions}},
  booktitle =	{2nd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2021)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-197-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{199},
  editor =	{Tessaro, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143271},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2021.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: perfect oblivious RAM, oblivious PRAM}

Keywords: perfect oblivious RAM, oblivious PRAM
Collection: 2nd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2021)
Issue Date: 2021
Date of publication: 19.07.2021

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