License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.8
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120677
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Brakerski, Zvika ; Koppula, Venkata ; Vazirani, Umesh ; Vidick, Thomas

Simpler Proofs of Quantumness

LIPIcs-TQC-2020-8.pdf (0.6 MB)


A proof of quantumness is a method for provably demonstrating (to a classical verifier) that a quantum device can perform computational tasks that a classical device with comparable resources cannot. Providing a proof of quantumness is the first step towards constructing a useful quantum computer.
There are currently three approaches for exhibiting proofs of quantumness: (i) Inverting a classically-hard one-way function (e.g. using Shor’s algorithm). This seems technologically out of reach. (ii) Sampling from a classically-hard-to-sample distribution (e.g. BosonSampling). This may be within reach of near-term experiments, but for all such tasks known verification requires exponential time. (iii) Interactive protocols based on cryptographic assumptions. The use of a trapdoor scheme allows for efficient verification, and implementation seems to require much less resources than (i), yet still more than (ii).
In this work we propose a significant simplification to approach (iii) by employing the random oracle heuristic. (We note that we do not apply the Fiat-Shamir paradigm.)
We give a two-message (challenge-response) proof of quantumness based on any trapdoor claw-free function. In contrast to earlier proposals we do not need an adaptive hard-core bit property. This allows the use of smaller security parameters and more diverse computational assumptions (such as Ring Learning with Errors), significantly reducing the quantum computational effort required for a successful demonstration.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Zvika Brakerski and Venkata Koppula and Umesh Vazirani and Thomas Vidick},
  title =	{{Simpler Proofs of Quantumness}},
  booktitle =	{15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-146-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{158},
  editor =	{Steven T. Flammia},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120677},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Proof of Quantumness, Random Oracle, Learning with Errors}

Keywords: Proof of Quantumness, Random Oracle, Learning with Errors
Collection: 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)
Issue Date: 2020
Date of publication: 08.06.2020

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