License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.68
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164098
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Ghasemi, Elahe ; Jugé, Vincent ; Khalighinejad, Ghazal

Galloping in Fast-Growth Natural Merge Sorts

LIPIcs-ICALP-2022-68.pdf (0.9 MB)


We study the impact of sub-array merging routines on merge-based sorting algorithms. More precisely, we focus on the galloping sub-routine that TimSort uses to merge monotonic (non-decreasing) sub-arrays, hereafter called runs, and on the impact on the number of element comparisons performed if one uses this sub-routine instead of a naive merging routine.
The efficiency of TimSort and of similar sorting algorithms has often been explained by using the notion of runs and the associated run-length entropy. Here, we focus on the related notion of dual runs, which was introduced in the 1990s, and the associated dual run-length entropy. We prove, for this complexity measure, results that are similar to those already known when considering standard run-induced measures: in particular, TimSort requires only 𝒪(n + n log(σ)) element comparisons to sort arrays of length n with σ distinct values.
In order to do so, we introduce new notions of fast- and middle-growth for natural merge sorts (i.e., algorithms based on merging runs). By using these notions, we prove that several merge sorting algorithms, provided that they use TimSort’s galloping sub-routine for merging runs, are as efficient as TimSort at sorting arrays with low run-induced or dual-run-induced complexities.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Ghasemi, Elahe and Jug\'{e}, Vincent and Khalighinejad, Ghazal},
  title =	{{Galloping in Fast-Growth Natural Merge Sorts}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{68:1--68:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164098},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.68},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sorting algorithms, Merge sorting algorithms, Analysis of algorithms}

Keywords: Sorting algorithms, Merge sorting algorithms, Analysis of algorithms
Collection: 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)
Issue Date: 2022
Date of publication: 28.06.2022

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