License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.71
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117560
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Applebaum, Benny ; Brakerski, Zvika ; Garg, Sanjam ; Ishai, Yuval ; Srinivasan, Akshayaram

Separating Two-Round Secure Computation From Oblivious Transfer

LIPIcs-ITCS-2020-71.pdf (0.5 MB)


We consider the question of minimizing the round complexity of protocols for secure multiparty computation (MPC) with security against an arbitrary number of semi-honest parties. Very recently, Garg and Srinivasan (Eurocrypt 2018) and Benhamouda and Lin (Eurocrypt 2018) constructed such 2-round MPC protocols from minimal assumptions. This was done by showing a round preserving reduction to the task of secure 2-party computation of the oblivious transfer functionality (OT). These constructions made a novel non-black-box use of the underlying OT protocol. The question remained whether this can be done by only making black-box use of 2-round OT. This is of theoretical and potentially also practical value as black-box use of primitives tends to lead to more efficient constructions.
Our main result proves that such a black-box construction is impossible, namely that non-black-box use of OT is necessary. As a corollary, a similar separation holds when starting with any 2-party functionality other than OT.
As a secondary contribution, we prove several additional results that further clarify the landscape of black-box MPC with minimal interaction. In particular, we complement the separation from 2-party functionalities by presenting a complete 4-party functionality, give evidence for the difficulty of ruling out a complete 3-party functionality and for the difficulty of ruling out black-box constructions of 3-round MPC from 2-round OT, and separate a relaxed "non-compact" variant of 2-party homomorphic secret sharing from 2-round OT.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Benny Applebaum and Zvika Brakerski and Sanjam Garg and Yuval Ishai and Akshayaram Srinivasan},
  title =	{{Separating Two-Round Secure Computation From Oblivious Transfer}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{71:1--71:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Thomas Vidick},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117560},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.71},
  annote =	{Keywords: Oracle Separation, Oblivious Transfer, Secure Multiparty Computation}

Keywords: Oracle Separation, Oblivious Transfer, Secure Multiparty Computation
Collection: 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)
Issue Date: 2020
Date of publication: 06.01.2020

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